Space-Division Multiplexing in Optical Communication Systems Extremely Advanced Optical Transmission with 3M Technologies https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-87619-7 Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS,volume 236)
Chapter 7 High power issues Toshio Morioka, Kazi S. Abedin, Nobutomo Hanzawa, Kenji Kurokawa, Kazunori Mukasa, Ryo Nagase, Hidehiko Takara, Shin-ichi Todoroki, Makoto Yamada & Shuichi Yanagi Pages 409-451 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-87619-7_7
D. Tokunaga, S. Sato, H. Hidai, S. Matsusaka, A. Chiba and N. Morita: “A novel method of triggering fiber fuse inside glass by optical breakdown and glass drilling as its application”, Applied Physics A, 400 (2019). doi: 10.1007/s00339-019-2691-9
CW and pulse laser light beams are focused at a point in the glass. The pluses induce plasma which grows with the CW light. Video clips available.
S. Todoroki: “Quantitative evaluation of fiber fuse initiation with exposure to arc discharge provided by a fusion splicer”,
Scientific Reports, 6, 25366 (2016). doi: 10.1038/srep25366
The conditions required for a fiber fuse initiation in standard single-mode fibers were determined quantitatively. Systematic investigation on the energy flow balance between these energy sources revealed that the initiation process consists of two steps; the generation of a precursor at the heated spot and the transition to a stable fiber fuse. The latter step needs a certain degree of heat accumulation at the core where waveguide deformation is ongoing competitively. This method is useful for comparing the tolerance to fiber fuse initiation among various fibers with a fixed energy amount that was not noticed before.
H. Pourbeyram, E. Nazemosadat, and A. Mafi:
“Detailed investigation of intermodal four-wave mixing in SMF-28: blue-red generation from green”
Optics Express Vol. 23, Issue 11, pp. 14487-14500 (2015)